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Knee Pain sp

Knee Pain

Knee pain is a common condition affecting individuals of various age groups. It not only affects movement but also impacts your quality of life. An injury or disease of the knee joint or any structure surrounding the knee can result in knee pain. A precise diagnosis of the underlying cause is important to develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Knee Injury sp

Knee Injury

Pain, swelling, and stiffness are the common symptoms of any damage or injury to the knee. If care is not taken during the initial phases of injury, it may lead to joint damage, which may end up destroying your knee.

Knee Sports Injuries sp

Knee Sports Injuries

Trauma is any injury caused during physical activity, motor vehicle accidents, electric shock, or other activities. Sports trauma or sports injuries refer to injuries caused while playing indoor or outdoor sports and exercising. Sports trauma can result from accidents, inadequate training, improper use of protective devices, or insufficient stretching or warm-up exercises. The most common sports injuries are sprains and strains, fractures, and dislocations.

Anterior Knee Pain sp

Anterior Knee Pain

Anterior knee pain is characterized by chronic pain over the front and centre of the knee joint. It is common in athletes, active adolescents (especially girls) and overweight individuals. Anterior knee pain refers to various conditions, which include runner's knee or patellar tendinitis, and chondromalacia of the patella. There is an inter-individual variation in the duration and presentation of pain.

Runner's Knee sp

Runner's Knee

Patellofemoral pain syndrome also called runner’s knee refers to pain under and around your kneecap. Patellofemoral pain is associated with a number of medical conditions such as anterior knee pain syndrome, patellofemoral malalignment, and chondromalacia patella. Patellofemoral pain is a common complaint among runners, jumpers, and other athletes such as skiers, cyclists, and soccer players; thus the common name, runner’s knee.

Jumper's Knee sp

Jumper's Knee

Jumper’s knee, also known as patellar tendinitis, is inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in the extension of the lower leg. Jumper’s knee usually results from repetitive trauma or overuse, particularly from sports activities that involve jumping such as basketball or volleyball.

Kneecap Bursitis sp

Kneecap Bursitis

Bursitis refers to the inflammation and swelling of the bursa. Inflammation of the bursa in front of the kneecap (patella) is known as kneecap bursitis or prepatellar bursitis. Symptoms of kneecap bursitis include pain and swelling in front of the knee. You may also experience tenderness, warmth, and redness on the front of the knee.

Patellar Instability sp

Patellar Instability

Any damage to the supporting ligaments may cause the patella to slip out of the groove either partially (subluxation) or completely (dislocation). This misalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the kneecap in place. Once damaged, these soft structures are unable to keep the patella (kneecap) in position.

Patellofemoral Instability sp

Patellofemoral Instability

Patellofemoral instability means that the patella (kneecap) moves out of its normal pattern of alignment. This malalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the knee in place. Patellofemoral instability can be caused because of variations in the shape of the patella or its trochlear groove as the knee bends and straightens.

Lateral Patellar Instability sp

Lateral Patellar Instability

Lateral patellar instability is defined as a lateral shift or displacement of the patella (kneecap) as a result of disruptive changes in the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and medial patellar retinaculum. Lateral patellar instability can be caused by variations in the shape of the patella or its femoral groove as the knee bends and straightens. Normally, the patella moves up and down within the femoral groove when the knee is bent or straightened.

Medial Patellar Instability sp

Medial Patellar Instability

Medial patellar instability is a disabling condition characterised by medial subluxation of the patella which occurs as a complication of lateral retinacular release surgery. Lateral retinacular release is a surgical procedure employed for the treatment of lateral patellar instability. However, disruption of the lateral patellar structures during this surgery has been associated with medial patellar instability.

Patellar Dislocation/Patellofemoral Dislocation sp

Patellar Dislocation/Patellofemoral Dislocation

Patellar dislocation occurs when the patella moves out of the patellofemoral groove, (trochlea) onto the bony head of the femur. If the kneecap partially comes out of the groove, it is called subluxation; if the kneecap completely comes out, it is called dislocation (luxation).

Patellar Tendon Rupture sp

Patellar Tendon Rupture

The patellar tendon works together with the quadriceps muscle and the quadriceps tendon to allow your knee to straighten out. Patella tendon rupture is the rupture of the tendon that connects the patella (kneecap) to the top portion of the tibia (shinbone).

Patella Fracture sp

Patella Fracture

The kneecap or patella forms a part of the knee joint. It is present at the front of the knee, protecting the knee and providing attachment to various muscle groups of the thigh and leg. The undersurface of the kneecap and the lower end of the femur are coated with articular cartilage, which helps in smooth movement of the knee joint. A fracture in the kneecap is rare but common in adult males.

Fractures of the Patella sp

Fractures of the Patella

The patella or kneecap is a small bone present in the front of your knee where the thigh bone meets the shinbone. It provides protection to your knee and attachment to muscles in the front of the thigh. An injury to the knee can result in a break or fracture of the patella.

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee sp

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee

Osteochondritis dissecans is a joint condition in which a piece of cartilage, along with a thin layer of the bone separates from the end of the bone because of inadequate blood supply. The separated fragments are sometimes called “joint mice”. These fragments may be localized or may detach and fall into the joint space, causing pain and joint instability.

Osteochondral Defect of the Knee sp

Osteochondral Defect of the Knee

An osteochondral defect, also commonly known as osteochondritis dissecans, of the knee refers to a damage or injury to the smooth articular cartilage surrounding the knee joint and the bone underneath the cartilage. The degree of damage may range from a rupture of the cartilage to a slight crack of the bone to a piece of the bone breaking off within the joint.

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture sp

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture

The quadriceps tendon is a thick tissue located at the top of the kneecap. It works together with the quadriceps muscles to allow us to straighten our leg. The quadriceps muscles are the muscles located in front of the thigh. The quadriceps can rupture after a fall, direct blow to the leg and when you land on your leg awkwardly from a jump. Quadriceps tendon rupture most commonly occurs in middle-aged people who participate in sports that involve jumping and running.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome sp

Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Iliotibial band syndrome is an overuse injury resulting from the inflammation of the iliotibial band. It occurs when the iliotibial band and the lower outside portion of the thighbone at the knee joint rub against each other. Iliotibial band syndrome commonly occurs in athletes, cyclists, and runners, and can occur from quickly increasing distances with running or biking activities.

Knee Dislocation sp

Knee Dislocation

Knee dislocation is a condition that occurs when the bones that form the knee joint, namely the femur or thigh bone get separated from the shin bone. This can cause serious damage to the nerves, blood vessels, and ligaments surrounding the knee, leading to a decline in strength and overall health of the leg.

Knee Fracture sp

Knee Fracture

A fracture is a condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. In younger individuals, these fractures are caused by high energy injuries, as from a motor vehicle accident. In older people, the most common cause is a weak and fragile bone.

Knee Stress Fractures sp

Knee Stress Fractures

Stress fractures of the patella or knee are very rare. Approximately two out of 10,000 athletes may experience a patella stress fracture. Initial symptoms include activity-related pain and then a fatigue stress fracture after minor trauma. The term insufficiency stress fracture is used for cases where the patella is weakened previously such as after patella resurfacing surgery.

Distal Femur Fracture sp

Distal Femur Fracture

Distal femur fractures may be caused by high energy injuries such as a fall from a height or a motor vehicle accident. Patients with osteoporosis, bone tumours or infections, or a history of knee replacement are more prone to femur fractures. In the elderly, even a simple fall from a standing position may result in a fracture as the bones tend to become weak and fragile with advancing age.

Fractures of the Tibia sp

Fractures of the Tibia

Fractures of the tibia vary depending on the force involved and are classified based on the location of the fracture, the pattern of the fracture, and exposure of the fracture site. The lower leg is made up of two long bones called the tibia and fibula that extend between the knee and ankle. The tibia or shinbone is the larger of the two bones. It bears most of the body’s weight and helps form the ankle joint and knee joint.

Stress Fracture of the Tibia sp

Stress Fracture of the Tibia

A stress fracture of the tibia or shinbone is a thin fracture, also called a hairline fracture that occurs in the tibia due to excess stress or overuse. The tibia is a weight-bearing bone in which stresses can accumulate from activities such as running and jumping.

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Repair sp

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Repair

Quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that usually warrants surgical treatment. Middle-aged individuals who are active in sports are more prone to having a quadriceps tendon rupture. With suitable and timely care, most individuals are able to return to their normal activities and occupations. Recovery varies from individual to individual and depends on active participation in your post-surgical rehabilitation exercises.

Tibial Eminence Fractures sp

Tibial Eminence Fractures

The tibial eminence, also called the tibial spine, is a bony protuberance of the tibia (shin bone) that attaches to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee joint. A tibial eminence fracture is break or crack in the bony attachment of the ACL to the tibia. The fracture can be a contact or non-contact injury and occurs at the base of the tibial eminence.

Periprosthetic Knee Fractures sp

Periprosthetic Knee Fractures

Knee replacement, also called knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the worn-out or damaged surfaces of the knee joint are removed and replaced with artificial implants. Any resulting fractures or breaks in the bone around the implant are called periprosthetic knee fractures. These fractures may occur during surgery (intraoperative) or after surgery (postoperative), and usually involve the patella, tibia or the femur (kneecap, shinbone, and thighbone). Women are at higher risk than men.