Rotator Cuff Tear
The rotator cuff is a group of tendons in the shoulder joint that provides support and enables a wide range of motion. A major injury to these tendons may result in rotator cuff tears. It is one of the most common causes of shoulder pain in middle-aged and older individuals. A rotator cuff tear may occur with repeated use of the arm for overhead activities, while playing sports, or from a motor accident.
Pain in the shoulder may suggest an injury, which is more common in athletes participating in sports such as swimming, tennis, pitching, and weightlifting. The injuries are caused due to the over usage or repetitive motion of the arms. In addition to pain, shoulder injuries also cause stiffness, restricted movements, difficulty in performing routine activities and popping sensation.
Anterior Shoulder Instability
Anterior shoulder instability, also known as anterior glenohumeral instability, is a condition in which damage to the soft tissues or bone causes the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) to dislocate or sublux from the glenoid fossa, compromising the function of the shoulder. It is caused by trauma or injury to the glenohumeral joint in which the upper arm bone is dislodged from its usual position in the middle of the glenoid fossa, and there is no longer joint articulation.
Posterior Shoulder Instability
Posterior shoulder instability, also known as posterior glenohumeral instability, is a condition in which the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) dislocates or subluxes posteriorly from the glenoid (socket portion of the shoulder) as a result of significant trauma. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation whereas a complete separation is referred to as a dislocation.
Shoulder impingement is the inflammation of the tendons of the shoulder joint. It is one of the most common causes of pain in the shoulder. Shoulder impingement is also called swimmer’s shoulder, tennis shoulder or rotator cuff tendinitis.
Arthritis of the Shoulder
The term arthritis literally means inflammation of a joint but is generally used to describe any condition in which there is damage to the cartilage. Damage of the cartilage in the shoulder joint causes shoulder arthritis. Inflammation is the body's natural response to injury. The warning signs that inflammation presents are redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
Shoulder instability is a chronic condition that causes frequent dislocation of the shoulder joint.A dislocation occurs when the end of the humerus (ball portion) partially or completely dislocates from the glenoid (socket portion) of the shoulder. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation whereas a complete separation is referred to as a dislocation.
Shoulder Labral Tear
The shoulder joint is a ball and socket joint. A ball at the top of the upper arm bone (humerus) fits neatly into a socket, called the glenoid, which is part of the shoulder blade (scapula). The glenoid is surrounded by a ring of fibrous cartilage called the labrum for stabilization of the shoulder joint. The biceps tendon attaches inside the shoulder joint at the superior labrum of the shoulder joint.
Shoulder Ligament Injuries
Shoulder ligament injuries are injuries to the tough elastic tissues present around the shoulder that connect bones to each other and stabilize the joint. The ligaments present in the shoulder are connected to the ends of the scapula, humerus, and clavicle bones which form the shoulder complex. The extensive stretching or tearing of these ligaments from acute or chronic injuries can lead to instability in the shoulder joint.
A break in a bone that makes up the shoulder joint is called a shoulder fracture. Clavicle and humerus fractures can occur by a direct hit from a motor vehicle accident, collision or fall. A fracture of the scapula can occur by high-energy trauma during an accident from a high-speed motor vehicle.
Frozen shoulder, also called adhesive capsulitis, is a condition in which you experience pain and stiffness in your shoulder. The symptoms appear slowly, worsen gradually and usually take one to three years to resolve on their own.Frozen shoulder is diagnosed with a physical exam during which your doctor will evaluate your shoulder movements and assess for pain.
Rotator Cuff Arthropathy
The rotator cuff consists of 4 muscles that stabilize the ball and socket joint of the shoulder during movement. Large tears in the rotator cuff can lead to joint instability and slipping of the ball (end of the upper arm bone or humerus) out of the socket (the glenoid fossa of the shoulder). Over time, this leads to a condition called rotator cuff arthropathy, which is a form of wear-and-tear arthritis caused by the rubbing of the ball against the outer rim of the glenoid.
Shoulder injuries most commonly occur in athletes participating in sports such as swimming, tennis, pitching, and weightlifting. The injuries are caused due to the over usage or repetitive motion of the arms. Shoulder injuries cause pain, stiffness, restricted movements, difficulty in performing routine activities and a popping sensation.
The break or fracture of the clavicle (collarbone) is a common sports injury associated with contact sports such as football and martial arts, as well as impact sports such as motor racing. A direct blow over the shoulder that may occur during a fall on an outstretched arm or a motor vehicle accident may cause the clavicle bone to break.
Proximal Humerus Fractures
The humerus is the bone that forms the upper arm. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula (shoulder blade) to form the shoulder joint and with the lower arm bones – the ulna and radius – to form the elbow joint. The proximal humerus is the upper end of the arm bone that forms the shoulder joint. The humerus is broadly divided into the head, neck and shaft region. Just below the head are two processes called the greater and lesser tubercles, which form the sites of attachment for the rotator cuff muscles.
Proximal Biceps Tendinitis
Proximal biceps tendinitis is the irritation and inflammation of the biceps tendon at the shoulder joint. The biceps muscle is the muscle of the upper arm which is necessary for the movement of the shoulder and elbow. It is made of a ‘short head’ and a ‘long head’ which function together. The long head of the biceps tendon is attached at the top of the shoulder joint. The short head is attached to your shoulder blade.
Shoulder Labral Tear with Instability
The shoulder consists of a ball-and-socket joint formed by the upper end of the humerus (upper arm bone) and a cavity in the shoulder blade called the glenoid. The glenoid cavity is surrounded by a rim of cartilage called the labrum. The labrum adds depth to the cavity making the joint more stable and positions the ball within the socket.
Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder
Instability may be described by the direction in which the humerus is subluxated or dislocated from the glenoid. When it occurs in several directions it is referred to as multidirectional instability. Multidirectional instability is diagnosed with the help of specific tests. Imaging tests such as an X-ray or an MRI scan help visualize the shoulder joint and its supportive structures.
Calcification tendinitis is a problem with the shoulder’s tendons and muscles. This condition occurs due to the formation of calcium deposits in the tendons (tissue which attaches muscle to bone) of the rotator cuff (a group of muscles and tendons stabilising the shoulder). This calcium build-up causes inflammation of the tissues surrounding it, and intense shoulder pain.
Rotator Cuff Pain
The rotator cuff consists of a group of tendons and muscles that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint. These tendons allow a wide range of movement of the shoulder joint across multiple planes. Irritation or injury to these tendons can result in rotator cuff pain.
Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Injuries
The acromioclavicular (AC) joint in the shoulder is very important for shoulder strength, motion, and maintaining shoulder position. The joint is stabilized by various ligaments and a capsule, which can cause pain and affect normal joint function if damaged.
Sternoclavicular Joint Injury
The sternoclavicular joint, commonly called the SC joint, is located between the breastbone (sternum) and the collarbone (clavicle). Sternoclavicular joint injuries can occur due to severe trauma or direct blows to the body as seen in motor vehicle accidents or in contact sports, where there is stretching or tearing of the supporting ligaments, and sometimes even fractures or dislocations.
Sports that involve overhead movements and repeated use of the shoulder at your workplace may lead to sliding of the upper arm bone from the glenoid. The dislocation might be a partial dislocation (subluxation) or a complete dislocation causing pain and shoulder joint instability. The shoulder joint often dislocates in the forward direction (anterior instability), and sometimes in the backward or downward direction.
Biceps Tendon Rupture at Shoulder
The biceps tendon is a tough band of connective fibrous tissue that attaches your biceps muscle to the bones in your shoulder on one side and the elbow on the other side. A biceps tendon rupture can either be partial, where it does not completely tear the tendon, or complete, where the biceps tendon completely splits in two and is torn away from the bone.